48 COUNTRIES (Plus two that are debatable but we listed them although they are not official UN member states.)

Europe is probably the most traveled to continent on Earth. Not only are the people friendly and the accommodations and food delightful, but its history is rich, its architecture is awe-inspiring, and its careful upkeep of artifacts from ancient civilizations all make Europe a wanderers paradise. Europe is renown for its amenities and ease of movement.

Did you see it? What isn’t labeled on this map is that little spit of blue between Lithuania and Poland, along the Baltic coast. That is actually a part of Russia. If that seems odd, think of Alaska.

As the numerous footnotes show, Europe has been the site of many a dispute over territory and many old grudges are strongly held, even today. Juggling all that history has been an awesome tasks in the formation of the European Union but that is best left for more studious researchers.

  • Albania
  • Andorra
  • Armenia1
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan1
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Georgia1
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Kosovo2
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Moldova, Republic of
  • Monaco
  • Montenegro
  • Netherlands (Kingdom of the)3
  • North Macedonia (1993 name change from Macedonia)
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation (Russia)4
  • San Marino
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey5
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Vatican City (Holy See)6

Source:  United Nations, 7/5/2020; CIA Factbook, 9/1/2012


1Georgia and Azerbaijan, with Armenia tucked just to the south, all fall south of the Caucasus Mountains so they are geographically part of Europe, not Asia.  They are also included in the list of Balkan states wishing to join the European Union.

2Serbia continues to reject Kosovo’s independence.  The International Court of Justice (ICJ) released an advisory opinion in July 2012 affirming Kosovo’s declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. Kosovo is officially considered a potential candidate for membership in the European Union despite continued objections from Cyprus, Greece, Romania, Slovakia and Spain. 

3In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands – Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba – became special municipalities in the Kingdom of the Netherlands administrative structure.  The larger islands of Curacao and St. Maarten joined the Kingdom of the Netherlands as constituent countries along the lines of Aruba which separated from Netherlands Antilles in 1986.

4The CIA’s “World Factbook” designates Russia as Central Asia, while the UN says Eastern Europe.  Body mass may be primarily in Asia, but Moscow has long been considered a European capital.

5Geographically part of Europe and Asia, Turkey occupies a strategic location.  Primary land mass may be Asian, but the capital city of Istanbul lies in Europe and Turkey is one of several Balkan states waiting in line to join the European Union.

6Vatican City is the only sovereign state with general international recognition that is not a member state of the United Nations.  The Holy See, which holds sovereignty over the state of Vatican City, and holds diplomatic relations with other states, is a United Nations permanent observer.